Analog is the first thing in electronics. Valve Radios had Amplifiers and RF sections that were analog. Even the first computing methods are analog. Analog is close to Real Life parameter behavior.
Learn this at my Industrial Process Control Circuits
LM335 and LM336 - LM335 is a temp sensor, LM335 . use it for temp for CJC. Temperature Sensors - RTDs and Thermocouples in Temperature Measurement.
LM336-2.5 is an voltage Reference. precision 2.5V shunt regulator diodes, Applied as a precision 2.5V low voltage reference for digital voltmeters, power supplies or in opamp signal conditioning.
Current Loop - 4-20 ma will drive DC drives, motors and steam valves. It is a current loop, for long distance transmission, current loop is not prone to noise and hum, EMI RFI. As it is a small power transmission no loss of data, also many equipments can be in one data loop. A single transmitter with 4-20mA out can drive a strip-chart recorder, motor, controller and SCADA input. all in a series loop. Current loop is like 4-20 mA
Opamp Notes and Types
- TL062, LF353, TL072, fet input. 1 tera ohm input imp.
- OP07 higher price, 1 giga ohm. 75uV offset.
- LF353 pin to pin replacement of TL062-72 and 82.
- LM358 works on single supply too, low price, inp imp 1 meg.
- LM324 Quad, works of batteries well.
- All work best with dual +/- 5 V or more. LM7805 -LM 7905.
Examine the operation of the following circuits of operational amplifiers: inverting amplifier, summing amplifier, difference amplifier, differentiator, and integrator.
Points to Note -
- Analog ground (opamps), digital ground (CMOS) and power ground (relays and LED) should be separate, (linked at root)
- Glass epoxy PCB have high insulation resistance, above 10 tera ohms, and are not hygroscopic which means they do not drink water vapor, this makes them very suitable for precision instrumentation and sensitive circuits.
- When you measure DC levels in 16bit accuracy or more you need resistors which have temp. coeff. of 10ppm, or you may have to put the entire circuit in a stable 45 deg oven. Thermoelectric effects, EMI, RFI, pA Leakage currents, ground loops, contact resistance all can make the readings drift and unusable.
- High impedance points of circuit like 500 kilo ohm and above can pick up AC noise and DC leakage currents. this will affect the performance of circuit, so for DC you have to put a guard ring of the signal ground around that point in PCB. For RF you have to shield with things related to iron and mu metal, for low signals even a copper shield will do.
- Percentage and ppm: when percentage becomes like 0.001% it is difficult to manage, so we use ppm-parts per million.5% means 5 parts in 100 parts. 23 ppm means 23 parts per million parts. 0.001% - shift the dp-decimal point four places to right it is 10ppm. 0.01% is 100ppm which is the variation of value of mfr resistors on temperature change.
delabs design Notes from the 90s till 2004