All Electronic Products have interfaces to external electrical circuits. The power supply is also derived using converters or power supplies. Motors, Heaters and Transformers are examples of components in the electric power circuits.
Points to bear in mind
12V lead acid batteries should be charged with a constant current CC and constant voltage charger the CV being 13.6V. Deep discharge and over charging will reduce the cycles.
Lead acid batteries need a monthly distilled water update to ensure long life, sealed lead acid dont need attention. Keep lead acid batteries in well ventilated area due to acid fumes.
Electric Shock can kill hence take great care, Electrolytic capacitors burst and Transformers catch fire. turn off equipment after use. turn off all electricity when going out of town.
Inductive kickback starts a tubelight or automobile as high voltages are produced when current in inductor is turned off. This also is the cause of failure in power semiconductors.
Earthing is important, ensure it's perfect, the neutral to earth could be 5V AC max., also a circuit breaker and fuse a must. Use a electrical earth leakage circuit breaker to protect both man and machine.
Extra care should be taken to prevent injury to eyes while working. Also 230V/110V shock can be fatal. working on high energy electrical circuits and power electronics should be with all precautions.
You need a Fuse, Circuit breaker and earth leakage circuit breaker for safety against shock and fire hazard.
High voltage or current stress, mechanical vibration, user misuse, High Energy stress (freq and voltage), aging (cycles) cause failure.
Good earthing, servo motor regulated mains supply, earth leakage circuit breaker and over current circuit breaker, HRC fuse are some safety steps to take.
When working with HV or HE circuits wear shoes, keep yourself dry, the supply board should have above protections in red.
Use silicone shrink sleeves to insulate or close exposed high voltage wire ends or joints.
Sparking at the high voltage mains supply power contacts like a plug can cause electronic gadgets to fail.
Near 2001 i started sharing my learning and experience in Electronics Engineering on Blogs and Newsletters. One of the Successful eMag and electronic email magazine ran for five years. I lost interest later in the email mag, and this magazine just morphed into a dozen or more Tech Blogs that run today. From the feedback i got, it has helped engineers and enthusiasts worldwide in Electronic Product Design.
It is called analog dial timer as it has no digital display, but the chip is digital it is CD4541. It is Mains operated, you could make on-delay or off-delay. By changing the caps and resistors or with even dip-switches you could get timing of few seconds to many hours. Circuit is Analog Timer 4541 .
Some timers energize the relay after a set delay on power start. Some start with relay energized and turn off after set time. Motors and big systems cannot take fast turn-on and turn-off, Some systems will require sections or modules to start one after another as they are interdependent.
This is in continuation of the thread called "Design of a Thermocouple Amplifier" doc00023.html which is in the same section .
This is just a formatted-edited email thread exported from Eudora from my mailbox using the content concentrator. The circuits below were made by TF a student, This thread has been put online to share information.
The part under "From: delabs" are my writing. there may be some mistakes and broken links.
"In order to communicate effectively, humans developed languages, signs and writing; however, communicating over long distances has always been a slow process…"
"Some African tribes still use drums to send messages across the savanna."
"On May 24th, 1844, an American artist and inventor called Samuel Morse (1791-1872) sent the first telegraph message from the Supreme Court Chamber of the U.S. Capitol Building in Washington D.C. to a receiver in Baltimore, some 65 km away."
"Thomas Doolittle developed a new process to draw strong copper wire. Because of its better electrical conductivity over iron, copper wires became the standard in telephony."